ICY SEA

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About the photography exhibition

The virtual photography exhibition “Icy Sea” is an initiative of the MicrOcean Lab of the Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo (IOUSP), with the objective of disseminating the polar sciences, the stunning landscapes and the biodiversity of Antarctica. This is also a contribution to the scientific promotion in the context of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (Ocean Decade, 2021-2030), in which we must become aware of the role of each one for the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of marine resources for a clean and healthy ocean today and in the future.

 

Antarctica is considered the continent of superlatives, as it is the coldest, with the highest average altitude, the driest and windiest, in addition to being covered by a layer of ice that contains the largest reserve (70%) of freshwater in the planet. This immense continent, with about 14 million km² (1.6 times the size of Brazil), is surrounded by the Southern Ocean known for the formation of water masses that circulate throughout the planet, totaling more than 45 million km² or the equivalent to 10% of the Earth's surface. Antarctic ecosystems are peculiar and have rich biodiversity, composed of whales, seals and sea lions, penguins and other birds, fishes, marine invertebrates, zooplankton species (especially krill), algae, lichens and mosses, phytoplankton and microorganisms. Doing science in this immense natural outdoor laboratory is a real privilege.

 

The photographic records of this exhibition were made in scientific expeditions held in February 2013 (OPERANTAR XXXI), February 2014 (OPERANTAR XXXII), February 2015 (OPERANTAR XXXIII), February 2016 (OPERANTAR XXXIV) and January/ February 2019 (OPERANTAR XXXVII) aboard the polar vessel Almirante Maximiano (H41). The records cover different locations in the Southern Ocean, including the Gerlache Strait, the Bransfield Strait, the Admiralty Bay, Half Moon Island, Deception Island, Hope Bay, the Antarctic Sound, in addition to the Chilean Channels (during the crossing to Antarctica). The 102 photographs are organized in chronological order, from the oldest to the most recent expedition, and contain a brief description, the location, the year and the source.

Acknowledgments

 

We are very grateful to the authors of the photos, who allowed their publication in this exhibition: Camila Negrão Signori (Professor at the University of São Paulo), Eduardo Resende Secchi (Professor at the Federal University of Rio Grande), Elisa Seyboth (Researcher at FURG and University of Cape Town), Luis Felipe Araujo (Captain of the Brazilian Navy), Stefan Sievert (Associate Scientist w/tenure at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, United States). We also thank Renato Gamba Romano (University of São Paulo) for his kindness in making the beautiful map.

 

We thank the Scientific Projects INTERBIOTA - “Biological Interactions in marine ecosystems around the Antarctic Peninsula under different impacts of climate change” (MCTI/ CNPq /FNDCT, Process 407889/2013-2) and EcoPelagos - “Responses of the Pelagic Ecosystem to climate change in the Southern Ocean” (CNPq/ MCTIC /CAPES /FNDCT, Process 442637/2018-7), as well as the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) that made these records and research possible in Antarctica. To learn more about PROANTAR, visit: https://www.marinha.mil.br/secirm/proantar

Curatorship

 

Lilian Rocha Carneiro, future oceanographer and PUB fellow at the Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo (Brazil)

Camila Negrão Signori, oceanographer and Professor at the Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo (Brazil)

ICY SEA

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Ice floating in the Southern Ocean. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Chinstrap penguin next to a whalebone and macroalgae in the background. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Chinstrap penguin and the Polar Vessel Almirante Maximiano (H-41) and a cargo vessel in the background. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Oceanographic Support Vessel Ary Rongel (H-44) small amidst the immensity of the hilly relief. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Ice sculpture in front of the snow-covered rock. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Facilities of the Machu Picchu Scientific Base of Peru, framed by a glacier. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Magnified view of melting ice in the austral summer. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Crabeater seal swimming near the vessel. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Rock and glacier formations. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Scientific campground near Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station. Location: Keller Peninsula Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Antarctic fur seals interacting. Location: Bransfield Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Crabeater seal resting. Location: Bransfield Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Antarctic fur seal on snow. Location: Bransfield Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Seals resting on the ice shelf. Location: Bransfield Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Magnified view of crabeater seals resting on the ice. Location: Bransfield Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Chinstrap penguin jumping on the ice. Location: Bransfield Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Chinstrap penguins in the snow. Location: Bransfield Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Antarctic fur seal on the ice shelf. Location: Bransfield Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Crabeater seals under the sun. Location: Antarctic Sound Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

The Antarctic continent and the Argentine Esperanza Base. Location: Antarctic Peninsula Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Facilities of the Argentine Esperanza Base, one of the few permanent settlements on the Antarctic continent. Location: Antarctic Peninsula Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Sunlit ice shelf. Location: Antarctic Sound Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Antarctic fur seals united. Location: Deception Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive OPERANTAR XXXI

Magnified view of a group of Antarctic fur seals. Location: Deception Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive OPERANTAR XXXI

Antarctic fur seals observing each other. Location: Deception Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive OPERANTAR XXXI

Antarctic fur seal swimming. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Birds flying over the Southern Ocean. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Humpback whale pectoral fin and, in the background, the glacial scenario. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Humpback whale caudal fin emerging. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Humpback whale showing off the caudal fin. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Humpback whale spray. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

The Antarctic continent and an ice block. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Sunset at 11 pm. Location: Antarctic Sound Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Extensive sea ice coverage. Location: Antarctic Sound Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Polar Vessel Almirante Maximiano (H-41) crossing the ice. Location: Antarctic Sound Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Aerial view of part of the Brazilian Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Brazilian Navy

Aerial view of the mainland of Keller Peninsula. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Brazilian Navy

Aerial view of the hilly relief of Keller Peninsula, covered with snow and ice. Location: Keller Peninsula, Admiralty Bay Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Brazilian Navy

Orca I Boat being launched from the Polar Vessel Almirante Maximiano (H-41). Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers on the boat. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Boat transporting researchers from the Polar Vessel Almirante Maximiano (H-41) to the Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Helicopter flying over the continent. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Oceanographic Support Vessel Ary Rongel (H-44) from Brazil. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Brazilian Navy helicopter landing on the Oceanographic Support Vessel Ary Rongel (H-44). Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers and crew gathered on the ship’s covered deck. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Boat sailing with researchers. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers watching and collecting samples of a humpback whale near the boat. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

In the Brazilian Navy helicopter, researchers are surveying the continent. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Brazilian Navy

Launch of oceanographic mooring to obtain time series data. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers in the laboratory to filter phytoplankton samples on the Polar Vessel Almirante Maximiano (H-41). Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers and crew of the Polar Vessel Almirante Maximiano (H-41) gathered to observe the equipment in the water through the computer. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Rainbow after the rain crossing the Chilean Channels. Location: Chilean Channels Year: 2013 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers photographing on the island. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Group of researchers among the tourists between the penguin colony and Cámara Base. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers heading towards the facilities of the Argentine Cámara Base. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Antarctic continent seen from the Polar Vessel Almirante Maximiano (H-41) with snow melting in the deck. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers on board the Polar Vessel Almirante Maximiano (H-41) conducting a primary productivity experiment. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Blue sky day in the Southern Ocean. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Gentoo penguins on the beach. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

A group of Antarctic fur seals. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Antarctic fur seals on the ice. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Several penguins together in the penguin colony. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Skuas on the rock, in the background, the Antarctic continent. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Chinstrap penguin chick. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Gentoo penguin, Antarctic fur seal in the background and macroalgae on the beach. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Antarctic fur seal resting on the beach. Location: Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

A group of birds on an island. Location: Chilean Channels Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Glacier melting in the austral summer. Location: Chilean Channels Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Growler between the Antarctic continent and the islands. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Rocks in the Palmer Archipelago partially covered by ice and snow. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Ice sculptures floating between the continent and the islands. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Gentoo penguins together on the rock. Location: Hope Bay Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Ship sheltered due to bad weather conditions: snow and strong winds. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Small boat in front of the huge glacier. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2014 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Small pieces of sea ice and a growler in the Southern Ocean. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2015 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Group of Antarctic fur seals and other seals sighted on the sea ice shelf. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2015 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Snow accumulated over the years forming the glaciers. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2015 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Sculptural iceberg in front of the sea ice edge. Location: Near the Weddell Sea Year: 2015 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Snow and ice covering most of the continent's surface. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the most important Antarctic base of Chile. Location: King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers walking around the island in the surroundings of the station. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Crosses in memory to those who died during activities in the region of Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Whale bones assembled by Jacques Cousteau near Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Penguin resting on the island. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Enlarged view of the whale bones. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Use of a peristaltic pump to filter the sampled water to obtain marine microorganisms. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers on the beach and the Polar Vessel Almirante Maximiano (H-41) in the background. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Researchers in the vicinity of the research facilities. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Group of researchers heading towards the research modules during the reconstruction of the Brazilian Station. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Departure of the zodiac boat with researchers on board. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Scientists await the return of the equipment overlooking the Southern Ocean. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Arrival of the researchers group at the Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva of Chile. Location: King George Island Year: 2016 Credit: Archive Project INTERBIOTA

Collection of the CTD-Rosette system with Niskin bottles on the deck for water sampling and physical-chemical data. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2019 Credit: Archive Project EcoPelagos

Group of killer whales swimming in the Southern Ocean. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2019 Credit: Archive Project EcoPelagos

Killer whale and bird competing for food (remains of the minke whale). Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2019 Credit: Archive Project EcoPelagos

Ice pack away from the continent. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2019 Credit: Archive Project EcoPelagos

The sunlit Southern Ocean. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2019 Credit: Archive Project EcoPelagos

Zodiac boat with Brazilian crew. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2019 Credit: Archive Project EcoPelagos

Countless blocks of ice floating. Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2019 Credit: Archive Project EcoPelagos

View of Antarctica on a cloudy day. Location: Gerlache Strait Year: 2019 Credit: Archive Project EcoPelagos

Researchers and crew on the bridge of the Polar Vessel Almirante Maximiano (H-41). Location: Southern Ocean Year: 2019 Credit: Archive Project EcoPelagos

Panoramic view of the Brazilian Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station. Location: Admiralty Bay, King George Island Year: 2019 Credit: Archive Project EcoPelagos